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關於女性爵士樂手

Annette Peacock
想, 爵士圈內女性樂手比例偏低的問題絕非源自女性天生不適合演奏爵士樂,而是後天的社會制約的問題。 從音樂教育的角度來看,依照性別刻板印象分工的現象始終存在。 比如說,男生學吹管樂器,女生學鋼琴或其他弦樂器等。 演奏圈內也是存在著性別歧視問題,許多男性爵士藝人以組成 boys' club 自豪,無形中限制了女性的參與, 經濟不景氣的時候, 樂手彼此之間做激烈的競爭,女性樂手要進入像樣的俱樂部裡演奏更形困難。

著名的爵士藝人都曾經雇用過女性樂手。小號手Lious Armstrong曾與鋼琴手Edna Thomas於1919年在扭奧良的紅蔥頭咖啡廳(Red Onion Cafe)同台演出。鋼琴手Lil Hardin 與知名的樂團領導人King Oliver在芝加哥登台演出, 鋼琴手Lovie Austin與她所領導的Serenaders與藍調歌手Ida Cox,Kid Ory合作的錄音, 在當時被視為難得一見的佳作。

Lil Hardin與丈夫Lious Armstrong的在Hot Five中的合作關係可說是早期爵士演奏圈佳話。如果沒有 Lil 的鼓勵,Lious Armstrong 不會做出重大抉擇, 離開 King Oliver 的樂團而加入Fletcher Henderson的樂團,從而影響他的演奏生涯。Lil Hardin也是個優秀的作曲家、歌手兼鋼琴家,但是終其一生,Lil Hardin的才能始終不像 Lious Armstrong一樣大放光芒。

其他例子像樂團領導人Mary Lou Wiilliams,有人將她領導的樂團譽為是bebop樂風的先鋒者之一,與 Thelonius Monk,Bud Powell 等人齊名。知名的Alice McLeod,在嫁給John Coltrane之前,一直都是享有聲譽的鋼琴手,婚後也與 John Coltrane 合作過多張專輯。甚至在John Coltrane 去世之後,仍然積極地活躍於爵士樂的演奏圈之中,並與多位知名藝人合作。這些例子,說明了歷史上不乏優秀的女性爵士樂手,但是能夠真正成名,受到肯定者,並不多見。

以下是一串女性爵士樂手的名單,或有不完整之處,不過這些女性在鋼琴手方面的高比例,卻似乎說明了一件事情:音樂的確是受到性別分工與其他社會因素建構而成的。有志於音樂教育者,似乎可以更進一步思考如何解決這種性別刻板印象化對音樂發展的障礙。

女性爵士樂人一覽表--不含歌手
NON-VOCALIST WOMEN IN JAZZ (an assuredly incomplete list)

Irene Aebi

violin, cello, voice

Toshiko (Mariano) Akyoshi

piano, composer, arranger, bandleader

Alive

improvising women's quintet from S.F.

Geri Allen

piano

Jill Allen

woodwinds

Lil (Hardin) Armstrong

piano

Dorothy Ashby

harp

Lovie Austin

blues piano

Cindy Blackman

drums

Carla Bley

piano, organ, composer, arranger, bandleader

Jane Ira Bloom

soprano sax, electronics

Karen Borca

bassoon, bass clarinet

Georgie Born

Voice, Keyboards (see FIG)

Joanne Brackeen

piano

Patti Bowen

piano

Carolyn Brandy

percussion

Jane Bunnett

soprano/alto saxes

Teri-Lynne Carrington

drums

Connie Carruthers (sp?)

piano (Tristano disciple)

Alice MacLeod Coltrane

piano, harp

Joanne Connor

blues guitar/bass

Lindsay Cooper

saxes, keyboards etc.

Marilyn Crispell

piano

Barbara Dennerlein

organ

Lorraine Desmarais

piano, synths

Dottie Dodgian

drums

Barbara Donald

trumpet

Dorothy Donegan

piano

Candy Dulfer

saxophone

Eliane Elias

piano

Sue Evans

percussion

FIG

Feminist Improvising Group, Brits org. by Lindsay Cooper

Sue Foley

blues guitar

Eileen Folson

cello (see Uptowns)

Rebecca Coupe Franks

trumpet

Jill Fredericksen

drums

Lori Freedman

bass clarinet (Vancouver)

Sharon Freeman

french horn, composer/arranger

Laurie Frink

trumpet, flugelhorn

Terry Garthwaite

blues guitar

Lorraine Geller

piano

Jane Getz

piano

Barbara Higbie

piano, guitar, violin etc.

Jutta Hip

piano

Robin Holcomb

composer, piano, synths

Maartje ten Hoorn

violiN

Shirley Horn

piano, organ

Margie Hyams

vibes, piano

Petra Ilyes

bass guitar

International Sweethearts of Rhythm

40's women's band

Terry Jenoure

violin

Justine

reincarnation of Wondeurbrass from Montreal

Jin He Kim

komungan (Korean koto)

Katerina Krimsky

piano

Joelle Leandre

bass

Marilyn Lerner

piano (Winnipeg)

Melba Liston

trombone, arranger

Ellen MacIllwaine

blues guitar

Karen Mantler

keyboard, harmonica

Marilyn Mazur

drums/percussion

Tania Maria

piano

Marian McPartland

piano

Myra Melford

piano

Naomi Millender

cello

Memphis Minnie

blues guitar

Ikue Mori

electronic/acoustic percussion

Kathryn Moses

flute, saxes

Diedre Murray

cello (the instrument of the 90's)

Amina Claudine Myers

piano, organ

Zeena Parkins

electric harp

Annette Peacock

composer, guitar, keyboards

Pauline Oliveros

accordian/electronics

Mary Osbourne

guitar

Elvira Plenar

piano

Queen Ida

zydeco accordian

Vi Redd

alto sax

Emily Remler

guitar

Maxine Roach

viola [see Uptowns]

Annemarie Roelofs

trombone, violin

Carolyn Romberg

saxes

Michelle Rosewoman

piano

Renee Rosnes

piano

Stacy Rowles

trumpet

Ellyn Rucker

piano

Ann Rupel (Curlew)

bass

Saffire-Uppitty Blues Women

blues trio (now duo)

Jane Sapp

blues piano

Maud Sauer

oboe

Maria Schneider

composer, conductor

Irene Schweizer

piano

Shirley Scott

organ

Melissa Slocum

bass

LaDonna Smith

violin

Valaida Snow

trumpet

Leni Stern

guitar

Peggy Stern

piano

Co Streiff

alto sax

Barbara Thompson

English reeds player, leads Paraphernalia

June Tyson

violin

Uptown String Quartet

women's string quartet

Mariette Rouppe van der Voort

alto sax

Katie Webster

blues/cajun piano

Kate Westbrook

tenor horn

Lily White

saxophone

Annie Whitehead

trombone

Jessica Williams

piano

Mary-Lou Williams

piano, composer, arranger

Wondeurbrass

women's improvising quintet from Quebec

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